Technology in Sports

It today’s world, sport cannot go together without technology. With the ever growing development of new technologies, they have always tried to be implemented into sports. Because technology can give sports something nothing else can, an unmistakable truth. Or so they say. Due to the fact that people are, well, people, they are bound to make mistakes. It is because we are human, we are not robots, that we can make mistakes, while robots make them only if they are malfunctioning. This is especially emphasized in sports, where human eyes can often deceive their owners, the referees most importantly, but also players, coaches and the fans. That is why these days there are many discussions about installing video technology into sports, mostly football. What does technology actually mean for sports?

Here I would like to emphasize that there are already sports using technology, like tennis and cricket, to name some. It helped the referees a lot, to minimize and correct some mistakes they make. But apparently, not all problems are solved like this. Players that have been playing for a longer period of time, and have not grown up with these kinds of technologies, are not convinced that it works properly. This suspicion is probably understandable, because when they were first starting their professional sports careers, they did not probably even dream about something like this would exist. But this technology has been tested time after time, and skeptical players, such as Roger Federer, have learned to live with it and accept it, although probably not so reluctantly.

This technology used in sports is called Hawk-Eye line-calling system, or just Hawk-eye for short. It was invented by a British computer expert Paul Hawkins. It is now used in tennis, where six or more cameras, situated around the court are linked together, track the path of the ball. Then those six or more cameras combine their separate views and make a 3D representation of the path of the ball. For tennis, or basically any other sport, this means that any close line call can be checked, quickly and accurately. This is not always used on tennis tournaments, though. For instance, the French Open is not using this technology because the tournament is played on clay courts and thus the print of the ball on the ground can easily be seen. Maybe this will change one day, because you can’t always be 100% sure you are looking at the right print.

These days there have been a lot of talks about introducing this technology to the sport of football. The sympathizers of this idea have been especially loud after the South Africa FIFA World Cup 2010, where a lot of mistakes by the referees have been made (an Argentina goal allowed although the player was offside, England goal not seen in a crucial moment). However, referees are only human, and they are bound to make mistakes because they can not help it, so i do not think all those critics were fair to them. On the other hand, a recent statement was made from the UEFA president Michel Platini, who is not thrilled about the goal-line technology, saying that this would reduce football to a video game. I don’t believe that other sports who have this technology have been reduced to a video game. Furthermore, he also admits that referees can make mistakes and that there are many cameras on the field that can catch any disputable moment. So why not help football, or any other sport, to see these disputable moments clearly and to resolve them without making mistakes. Or is it better to hear a mass of critics every time something like this happens? I am sure the referees would like this kind of help, then they couldn’t be blamed for anything and wouldn’t have to listen to all the nonsense people say about them the other day, or worse.

The Most Important Components of Physical Fitness

There are components of physical fitness which insurance companies and trainers take into account as they are significant to the overall evaluation of health. Basically it is similar to a fine-tuning a racing engine, you would never add diesel to an engine that requires high octane.

When physical trainers measure the fitness of a person they use some components of physical fitness to test against a set standard and to develop goals for further improvement. By incorporating these components of physical fitness you can not only improve your health but also lose weight.

The first of these is muscular strength. This measures the ability of the muscle to exert a maximal force through a range of motion or to a given point. This is measured for a short period of time and usually incorporates the use of weights for evaluation.

As muscular strength varies through the body, you might for instance you have
high muscular strength in your arms while having weaker legs, this component is related to the amount and type of exercise that your body undergoes. Weight training or strength training is the only method to improve strength. One principle of increased muscle mass is that that a larger amount of muscle consumes a greater number of calories, even at rest. By increasing mass you effectively increase the amount of calories needed for your body at rest and will reduce your body fat ratio. Another benefit to strength training is that it will help to maintain your bone structure and decrease your risk of osteoporosis.

The second component is muscular endurance. This reflects to your muscles ability to work through a range of motion over a specific amount of time. This can be measured by the ability to hold a weight for a specific amount of time – say 20 pounds over-head for 5 minutes. Many times this component is measured through push-ups as these are exercises that exert a specific amount of pressure over time. This measures the upper body muscular endurance.

Muscular endurance is often confused with muscular strength because they are related. However they offer different benefits, while using muscular endurance an athlete is able to shovel snow for an hour lifting and moving a sub-maximum amount of snow over a specified amount of time. Muscular strength would have been the ability of the arms and shoulders to lift the maximum amount a couple of times.

The trainer will test muscular endurance while he will also be testing cardiovascular endurance because these two components are closely related. Cardiovascular endurance will reflect how well your heart and lungs work together to supply oxygen to your body, this is also called aerobic fitness. Trainers may use long runs or swims to test cardiac endurance and test muscular endurance at the same time. This is the cornerstone to complete health and fitness. Without cardiovascular endurance you can not improve the rest of your fitness.

Another component is flexibility, this is the ability of a joint to move through its full range of motion and the elasticity of the muscles. Some refer to this as how limber or supple you are, this is a major component of physical fitness and one that is often over looked. Not everyone needs to be as limber as a gymnast but we all need a degree of flexibility to deal with the demands placed on us during our daily lives.

Stretching is associated with flexibility in order to maintain or increase the ability of a joint to stretch further. Maintaining your flexibility is important for protection of your joints and allowing you to strengthen further to protect your back and reduce the pain of arthritis.

The final component of physical fitness is body composition. This is the ratio of lean body mass to fat body mass. This proportion does not refer to your weight in pounds or to your figure but to a measurement against a standard. Women and men have different body composition ratios. Women carry a higher percentage of fat to maintain a developing baby. This does not mean that women are fatter – but that their fat distribution is different.

Your body composition is really more a consequence of your overall fitness. If you have a high body fat mass ratio you are more at risk for coronary heart disease, diabetes, joint and back pain, arthritis, stroke and tendon-muscle accidents.

These components of physical fitness are foundation to physical fitness and the ability of the human body to withstand external forces and internal stress while maintaining health and wellness.

Productivity Measurements and Telecommuting

Over the years, the improved channels of telecommunication have paved the way for an increase in number of Telecommuting jobs. Telecommuting occupations are not your typical office work and that is why, it has become a focus of productivity measures issues. There are a lot of myths that surround telecommuting and Productivity Measurements. Some say that measuring productivity is much more difficult in telecommuting than in regular office work.

Before going forward, let us first individually define what Productivity and what Telecommuting is. Productivity (in Economics) refers to the amount of output produced in a specific amount of time. In a factory or office setting, this can easily be computed by dividing the number of units of output with the time spent to produce them. For example, an office worker is given the task to compile kits for the participants of a lecture. He was able to compile 25 kits in 1 hour, and that becomes his productivity rate.

Quantitative data is more easily translated into productivity rates rather than qualitative data. On the other hand Telecommuting (other known as working from home) is form of work where the employee works on his or her own schedule. It is called telecommuting because the time and process of commuting to and from the work place are replaced by links of telecommunication. A few of the most popular telecommuting tasks is Medical Transcription and Insurance Underwriting.

The issue that lies between Productivity measurement and Telecommuting are claims saying that Productivity measurement is harder to achieve than with regular office work. This is claimed to be the major downfall of telecommuting. Because of this, employer supposedly has no hold on the productivity of their personnel who work form home.

However, that is really not the case. Productivity Measurements are still easily achievable with Telecommuting Jobs. The rate telecommuting employee works, is the same with every project that he / she receives. A Medical Transcriptionist may complete transcription of 5 files in an hour. No matter how many hours a day a medical transcriptionist chooses to work, his or her hourly rate is still the same.

Another myth about productivity measurement and telecommuting is that an employee has no hold on how much an employee works on a set number of days. This is opposed by the fact that employers enforce deadlines that a Telecommuting employee must adhere to. In example, an Underwriter is given 10 insurance policies to process in a span of 4 days. It is of no consequence to the employer how his or her Underwriter divides the task over 4 days as long as it is completed within the set number of days.

Telecommuting is a practice that will unduly continue to grow. Since early fears that it may not be a as easy to regulate and measure as regular office work, it has been proven that it is not so. That is the reason why employers should not shy away from hiring telecommuting personnel because they can still measure and regulate their productivity rate since not having set office hours.

What is Political Science?

"Political science" is generally defined as the study of Governments, political processes and political behavior. It is a branch of the social sciences where study mainly revolves around analyzing, describing and anticipating political behavior along with political systems. In fact, the best way to describe it is as a science that revolves more around subjective elucidations than hard data. It is a science that helps a person in understanding the relationships between other individuals, groups and the state, along with the working procedure of modern government.

Political science as a discipline is relatively new and in recent years gained enough recognition among young students of the United States. It is mainly includes various sub-fields like philosophy and theory of political system, political economy, policy studies, international relations, and a collection of other related fields. The major aim of political science is to help a student make a career in politics and give them a proper knowledge of the political procedure that might be helpful.

Students who make a career in this branch of social science are generally called political scientists and can lead to exciting careers in federal, state and local governments; law; business; international organizations and electoral politics.

Their job responsibilities primarily revolve around analyzing different areas of political behavior, including public administration, public opinion, taxation andoting. Apart from this, they generally carry out research on different public issues and political relations and resources. These research procedure can be both within a single country or internationally. However, the research and analysis process frequently includes judicial rulings, public opinion and decision-making. Adding to this, they also recommend solutions and at times perform research to make better decisions on matters that generally affect citizens, business and environment.

Employment Outlook

The job outlook of this domain actually seems to be very inspiring. In fact, as per the latest study conducted by the Bureau of Labor Statistic of the United States it is anticipated that in the next few years the jobs for political scientists will increase further. As per few experts, the overall employment is also planned to grow about as fast as the average for all occupations.

Salary Outlook and Other Benefits

Average awareness of political scientists completely depends on their education, experience and geographical position of the organization. The starting salary range for a political scientist average near about $ 27,000. Neverheless, with experience and higher educational success, the income may further increase to $ 65,000 or more. Adding to this, any graduate with a bachelor's degree in political science can enjoy a decent earning and may earn almost $ 2,500 more per annual than the average person having just a Bachelor's degree. Beside this, bachelor's degree holders can also move into force force as paralegals or administrative assistants. Moreover, political scientists employed by colleges and universities even get enough opportunities to add to their income by teaching summer school courses, writing books or doing consulting work. They may even enjoy several benefits, such as health insurance & retirement plans, paid holidays & vacations etc. depending upon their positions.

Required Educational Qualification

So, by now if you are looking forward making a career in political science or want to grow as a political scientist you need to have an advanced doctor degree in political science. If you earn a Ph.D. in political science, you may work as professors in colleges and universities. More of these these positions often lead to important service in schools, communities and the nation. Other than these, there are bachelor's and master's level programs in political science as well. While the graduate degrees in political science are respected by all employment sectors, the master's are highly appreciated by private and public agencies and a growing number of numerous non-profit associations.

Today it is definitely one of the few career options that may provide you the long-term job growth and meaningful rewards.